Fig. 1 A propagating electromagnetic wave. The sinusoidally varying magnetic field is located at right angles to the sinusoidally varying electric field. Both are at right angles to the direction of the propagation.
Fig. 2 Approximate relationship of the propagating field E-Bar to the loss field B-Barσ. B-Barσ is sinusoidal and is shown at 100 Hz, 1 kHz, and 10 kHz for a conductor with a width of 10 mm.
Fig. 3 Cross-section of a coaxial cable showing a radial E-Bar field and a circumferential H-Bar field.
Fig. 4 Basic field relationships and direction of the propagation of the main external field and internal loss field.
Fig. 5 Measurement system for extracting an error signal caused by an internal loss field within a conductor that exhibits significant “skin” depth.
Fig. 6 shows a computer simulation of a tone burst that has been modified by a transfer function that is similar to what occurs in the cable. A similarly measured result is shown in Fig. 7. In the steady state, a 45-degree phase shift occurs. However, after the tone is switched off, a dispersive component is revealed. This latter period is where the energy contained within the conductors decays and is constrained by the low velocity of propagation within a good conductor.
Fig. 7 Predicted error because of the internal loss field of a conductor operating in a skin depth-limited region.
Fig. 8 Measured error because of an internal loss field of a conductor operating in a skin depth-limited region. Note that input and output waveforms are not on the same scale, and that time dispersion is proportional to the tone period in the skin depth-limited region, meaning that the time scale is immaterial.